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Trout I SS-202 - History

Trout I SS-202 - History


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Trout I

(SS-202: dp. 1,475 (surf.), 2,370 (subm.), 1. 307'2"b. 27'3", dr. 13'3", s. 20 k. (surf.), 8.75 k. (subm.)cpl. 59; a. 10 21" tt., 1 3", 2 50-car. mg.; cl. Tambor)

The first Trout (SS-202) was laid down on 28 August 1939 by the Portsmouth (N.H.) Navy Yard, launched on 21 May 1940; sponsored by Mrs. Walter B. Woodson and commissioned on 15 November 1940, Lt. Comdr. Frank W. Fenno, Jr., in command.

On 2 July 1941, following preliminary operations along the east coast, Trout and Triton (SS-201) departed New York, bound for the Pacific. After transiting the Panama Canal and stopping at San Diego, the submarines arrived at Pearl Harbor on 4 August 1941.

Trout conducted training operations with Submarine Division 62 until 29 November when she stood out of Pearl Harbor to conduct a simulated war patrol off northern Midway. During the patrol, the submarine ran submerged from 0500 to 1800 each day. On the morning of 7 December, she received word of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. That night, the submarine observed two ships shell Midway. She was about 10 miles distant and proceeded toward the enemy ships at full speed, but they retired before she arrived. Frustrated in being unable to fire a shot, she continued her patrol until 20 December 1941 when she returned to Pearl Harbor.

On 12 January 1942, Trout stood out of Pearl Harbor with 3,500 rounds of ammunition to be delivered to the besieged American forces on Corregidor. She topped off with fuel at Midway on the 16th and continued westward. On the 27th, near the Bonin Islands, she sighted a light off her port bow, closed to 1,500 yards of the vessel, and fired a stern torpedo which missed. She closed to 600 yards, discovered that her target was a submarine chaser, and, as she had been warned to avoid small ships, resumed her course for the Philippines. On 3 February, Trout rendezvoused with a torpedo boat off Corregidor and was escorted to South Dock. She unloaded the ammunition; refueled; loaded two torpedoes, and requested additional ballast. Since neither sandbags nor sacks of concrete were available she was given 20 tons of gold bars and silver pesos to be evacuated from the Philippines. She also loaded securities, mail, and State Department dispatches before submerging shortly before daybreak to wait at the bottom in Manila Bay until the return of darkness. That evening, the submarine loaded more mail and securities before she was escorted through the mine fields out to open water. Trout set a course for the East China Sea which she entered on the 10th.

That afternoon, Trout fired a torpedo at a freighter from a range of 2,000 yards but missed. The submarine then closed the target before firing two more which both hit the freighter. Approximately 25 minutes later, her sonar heard four explosions that were the boilers of Chuwa Maru blowing up as she sank. That evening Trout was returning through the Bonins when she sighted a light. She changed course, closed the range to 3,000 yards, and fired two torpedoes at the ship. Both missed. In the time that lapsed between firing the first and the second torpedo, an enemy torpedo passed down Trout's port side. As the submarine went to 120 feet, another torpedo passed overhead. Trout came up to periscope depth and fired a third torpedo at the target and blew it up. Sound picked up another ship running at full speed, but there was no opportunity to attack it. Trout was credited with sinking a small patrol ship of approximately 200 tons. When she reached Pearl Harbor on 3 March, the submarine transferred her valuable ballast to a cruiser.

The submarine's third war patrol, conducted from 24 March to 17 May, took her to Japanese home waters. On 9 April, Trout was patrolling between Ichie Saki and Shioni Misaki when she sighted two small cargo ships. She fired two torpedoes at each target, but all missed. The next day, she fired one torpedo at a small steamer and missed again. On 11 April, she attacked a large freighter with two torpedoes. One hit the target but did not sink it. Finally, on the 24th, the submarine hit a 10,000-ton tanker with two torpedoes off the coast of Shiono, and it headed for the beach. A sweep of the periscope showed a cargo ship going to the aid of the tanker. Trout fired one torpedo and missed. She then closed to 500 yards and fired another torpedo that hit with a tremendous explosion. When last seen, the cargo ship, too, was heading for shallow water. Four days later, the submarine attacked a 1,000-ton patrol vessel or minesweeper with a torpedo which sank it in two minutes. On 30 April, Trout attacked two ships off Shimo Misaki but missed both. On 2 May, the submarine sank the 5,014-ton cargo ship Uzan Maru. Two days later she fired a spread of two torpedoes at what was thought to be a freighter. The first torpedo missed, but the second hit forward of the bridge, sinking the converted gunboat Kongosan Maru. The submarine was then subjected to a six-hour depth charge attack before she could clear the area.

Trout stood out of Pearl Harbor on 21 May as a unit of Task Group 7.1, the Midway Patrol Group which consisted of 12 submarines. Her station was south of the island as nine of the submarines were positioned fan-like to the west of Midway in preparation for the Japanese attack. At 0812 on 4 June, Trout sighted a Japanese fighter plane preparing to attack from astern. She went deep and heard a series of light explosions. On 9 June, Trout passed through a large oil slick and some debris before rescuing two Japanese from a large wooden hatch cover She returned to Pearl Harbor on 14 June without firing a torpedo.

On 27 August, the submarine proceeded via the Marshalls to the Caroline Islands and began patrolling off Truk. She was detected by patrol craft on 10 September and was forced to go deep for one and one-half hours while they rained down 45 depth charges. The next day, she sighted a large transport, but escorts forced her to go deep and clear the area. On the 21st the submarine fired three stern torpedoes at a naval auxiliary. The first torpedo broke the ship in half, and the next two hit the aft section. The victim was subsequently identified as Koei Maru, a converted net tender. A week later, Trout picked up a carrier group consisting of a light aircraft carrier, two cruisers, and two destroyers. The submarine closed to 1,500 yards and fired a spread of five torpedoes. She hear] two timed explosions and saw the carrier Taigo (Otaka) slow, with smoke pouring out of her starboard side near the water line. Trout heard high-speed screws approaching and went to 200 feet as a pattern of 10 depth charges shook her severely

On 3 October, Trout was going to reconnoiter Otta Pass. Six miles west of South Islands, she came to periscope depth to obtain a navigational fix. Just as the periscope was lowered, there was a violent explosion, close aboard, that shook the ship violently. The entire crew was stunned by the shock. One man was thrown from his bunk, and another was knocked off his feet. Trout crash-dived to 150 feet. As she passed 80 feet on the way down, another bomb exploded without effect. Since both periscopes were out of commission, the submarine headed for Australia and arrived at Brisbane on the 13th.

Trout's sixth war patrol began on 26 October and took her to waters around the New Georgia Islands. On 13 November, she was patrolling 80 miles north of Indispensable Strait when she saw a Kongo-class battleship accompanied by destroyers and six aircraft The submarine fired a spread of five torpedoes with a depth setting of 25 feet; all missed; and she cleared the area. The patrol ended when the submarine returned to Brisbane 10 days later.

On 29 December 1942, Trout stood out to sea to patrol off North Borneo. The submarine contacted a large tanker off Miri on 11 January 1943 and fired three torpedoes from a range of 2,000 yards. The first two hit the target amidships, but the third exploded prematurely. Four minutes later, there was a heavy explosion from the direction of the target. Since postwar examination of Japanese records shows no sinking, the damaged ship must have managed to limp back to port.

Ten days later, off Indochina, Trout fired two torpedoes at a cargo ship from 700 yards and watched as the unidentified ship sank immediately. On 29 January, the submarine fired three torpedoes at a destroyer and watched each run true to the target. However, all proved to be duds. On 7 February, she sighted tanker Misshin Maru moored off Lutong. She made a submerged approach, fired two torpedoes at the target, heard one explosion, and observed smoke rise from the stern of the tanker. However, no sinking upon this occasion was confirmed.

One week later, Trout fired two torpedoes at what she thought to be a tanker as it emerged from a rain squall. The first torpedo blew off the target's bow, but the second one was a dud. As the enemy ship was still steaming at eight knots, the submarine surfaced for battle with her deck guns. Trout opened fire, but soon seven of her men were wounded by enemy machine gun fire. She then swung around and fired a stern torpedo and watched Hirotama Maru turn her stern straight up with her screws still turning and slip under the waves. The patrol ended when the submarine arrived at Fremantle on 25 February.

Trout was next ordered to plant mines in Api Pas sage. She got underway on 22 March and, on 4 April while en route from Balaboc Strait to Miri, fired a spread of three torpedoes at a naval auxiliary. One hit the target amidships, raisins: a 20 foot plume of water into the air; but the warhead did not explode.

Trout fired a fourth torpedo; but the ship saw its wake, turned, and dodged it. The next day, she fired three torpedoes at another ship with no results. Trout planted 23 mines in Api Passage on 7 and 8 April and then began patrolling the Singapore trade route. On the 19th, she fired four torpedoes at a freighter but scored no hits. Later in the day, she fired a spread of three torpedoes at a tanker and missed. Trout sighted two trawlers on the 23d and battle surfaced. Her deck guns soon stopped the first ship dead in the water and set it on fire; they then turned the second one into a burning wreck. Since there was only one torpedo remaining, the submarine headed for Fremantle, where she arrived on 3 May.

From 27 May to 20 July, Trout performed a special mission during an offensive war patrol. On 9 June, she missed a transport with three torpedoes. She then landed a five-man Army team at Labangan, Mindanao. On the 15th, the submarine fired a three-torpedo spread which destroyed the tanker, Sanraku Maru. She contacted three small coastal steamers on 26 June and sank two of them with her deck guns. On 1 July, she sank l$uzu Maru with four torpedoes. Eight days later Trout picked up a party of five American officers off the south coast of Mindanao and headed for Fremantle.

Trout stood out to sea on 12 August to patrol the Surigao and San Bernardino straits. On 25 August, she battled a cargo-fisherman with her deck guns and then sent a boarding party on board the Japanese vessel. After they had returned to the submarine with the prize's crew, papers, charts, and other material for study by intelligence officers, the submarine sank the vessel. Three of the five prisoners were later embarked in a dingby off Tifore Island.

On 9 September, she fired three bow tubes at an 1~2-class submarine off Surigao Strait. Thirty-five seconds later, there was a loud explosion which apparently stopped the target's screws. Trout's sound crew reported a torpedo approaching her port beam, and she went to 100 feet. After she heard a second explosion, Trout came to periscope level, but found no sis~n of 1-182 which she had sunk. On the 22d, one of the remaining Japanese prisoners died of self-imposed starvation and was buried at sea.

The next day, the submarine sighted two ships with an escort. One was a freighter with a deck load of planes, and the other was a passenger-cargo. Trout fired a spread of three torpedoes at each of the targets. She saw and heard two hits on each. The freighter Ryotoku Maru sank stern first. The transport was being abandoned. The submarine proceeded close aboard and passed 12 to 15 life boats. There was a good fire on the transport which was low in the water with her bow nearly awash. Sound heard a heavy explosion from Yamashiro Maru and, seven minutes later, Trout could see no trace of her. That night, the submarine set a course for Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 4 October 1943.

The submarine was then routed back to the United States for a prolonged overhaul at the Mare Island Navy Yard. She was ready for sea in January 1944 and returned to Pearl Harbor late that month.

On 8 February, the submarine began her 11th and final war patrol. Trout topped off with fuel at Midway and, on the 16th, headed via a great circle route toward the East China Sea. She was never heard from again.

Japanese records indicate that one of their convoys was attacked by a submarine on 29 February 1944 in the patrol area assigned to Trout. The submarine badly damaged one large passenger-cargo shin and sank the 7,126-ton transport Sakito Maru. Possibly one of the convoy's escorts sank the submarine. On 17 April 1944, Trout was declared presumed lost.

Trout received 11 battle stars for World War II service and the Presidential Unit Citation for her second, third, and fifth patrols.


TROUT SS 202

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Tambor Class Submarine
    Keel Laid 28 August 1939 - Launched 21 May 1940

Japanese records examined after the war showed that destroyer IJNS ASASHIMO detected a submarine and
dropped 19 depth charges February 29 1944 after sinking of SAKITO MARU by USS TROUT

Naval Covers

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Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

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A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
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Contents

Trout was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the trout, any of certain small, fresh-water fishes, highly esteemed by anglers for their gameness, their rich and finely flavored flesh and their handsome (usually mottled or speckled) coloration. Her keel was laid down on 28 August 1939 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine. She was launched on 21 May 1940 sponsored by Mrs. Walter B. Woodson, and commissioned on 15 November 1940 with Lieutenant Commander Frank Wesley "Mike" Fenno, Jr., as captain.


Hidden History: Letters from Mother's of Trout Crew

More than a few enlisted men lied about their age to join the Navy, and some were younger than 17. At 30 years old with 11 years submarine experience, Brownlow may have been seen as an older brother or even a father figure by the men he served with. He was a father at the time of Trout’s loss, married with a young family of his own.

Most of the letters sent to Mrs. Brownlow were from concerned mothers awaiting the return of their sons from duty aboard USS Trout (SS-202).

Dear Mrs. Brownlow I have enclosed a picture of my son George who was a shipmate of your husband on the Trout. I will greatly appreciate having a picture of your husband if it isn't asking too much. I am praying for the safe return of the Trout crew soon. Thanking you I am.

Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Hallie Mollohan

Sadly, during her 11th patrol, USS Trout and her crew were reported as presumed lost on April 17, 1944.


Trout (SS-202)


USS Trout as modified during the war

Most likely sunk by depth charges from the Japanese destroyer Asashimo (offsite link) southeast of Okinawa in position 22º40'N, 131º45'E. 81 dead, no survivors.

Commands listed for USS Trout (202)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Lt.Cdr. Frank Wesley Fenno, Jr., USN15 Nov 1940Jun 1942
2T/Lt.Cdr. Lawson Paterson Ramage, USNJun 19424 May 1943
3T/Lt.Cdr. Albert Hobbs Clark, USN4 May 194329 Feb 1944 (+)

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Notable events involving Trout include:

7 Dec 1941
When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) was already at sea on a simulated war patrol off Midway. During the night USS Trout spotted the Japanese destroyers Sazanami and Ushio (both offsite links) shelling Midway. Unfortunately she was unable to attack them.

20 Dec 1941
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) ended her 1st war patrol at Pearl Harbor.

12 Jan 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) left Pearl Harbor for her 2nd war patrol. She was ordered to transport 3500 rounds of 3" AA ammunition to the besieged American forces on Corregidor in the Philippines.

3 Feb 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) delivers the ammunition to Corregidor and embarks gold, silver, securities, mail and one officer to be transported to Pearl Harbor.

9 Feb 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) torpedoed and sank the Japanese auxiliary gunboat Chuwa Maru (2719 GRT) about 55 nautical miles from Keelung, Formosa in position 25°30'N, 122°38'E.

3 Mar 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) ended her 2nd war patrol at Pearl Harbor.

24 Mar 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) departed from Pearl Harbor for her 3th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in Japanese home waters.

11 Apr 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese tanker Nisshin Maru (16801 GRT) west of Shionomisaki, Japan in position 33°26'N, 135°38'E.

24 Apr 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese merchant Tachibana Maru (6521 GRT) off Susami Kii in position 33°31'N, 135°29'E.

2 May 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) torpedoed and sank the Japanese merchant Uzan Maru (5019 GRT) off the southeast coast of Honshu, Japan in position 33°26'N, 135°52'E.

4 May 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) torpedoed and sank the Japanese auxiliary gunboat Kongosan Maru (2119 GRT) off the southeast coast of Honshu, Japan in position 33°32'N, 136°05'E.

17 May 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) ended her 3th war patrol at Pearl Harbor.

21 May 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) departed from Pearl Harbor for her 4th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off Midway.

9 Jun 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) picks up two survivors from the sunken Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma (offsite link) and takes them to Pearl Harbor.

14 Jun 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. F.W. Fenno) ended her 4th war patrol at Pearl Harbor.

27 Aug 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) departed from Pearl Harbor for her 5th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off Truk in the Caroline Islands.

21 Sep 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) torpedoed and sank the Japanese auxiliary net layer Koei Maru (863 GRT) south of Truk in position 06°54'N, 151°51'E.

28 Sep 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese escort carrier Taiyo (offsite link) east of Truk in position 06°59'N, 151°45'E.

3 Oct 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) is damaged by a Japanese aerial bomb off Truk. She is forced to terminate her patrol as both her periscopes are out of action.

13 Oct 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) ended her 5th war patrol at Brisbane, Australia.

26 Oct 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) departed from Brisbane for her 6th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Solomons Islands area.

23 Nov 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) ended her 6th war patrol at Brisbane.

29 Dec 1942
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) departed Fremantle for her 7th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the South China Sea.

11 Jan 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese tanker Kyokuko Maru (17549 GRT) off Miri, Borneo in position 04°24'N, 113°51'E.

18 Jan 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) sank two Japanese sampans with gunfire off the coast off Indo-China in position 12°37'N, 109°30'E.

21 Jan 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese auxiliary gunboat Eifuku Maru (3520 GRT) off the coast of Indo-China in position 11°25'N, 109°22'E.

7 Feb 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese tanker Nisshin Maru (16801 GRT) off Miri, Borneo in position 04°31'N, 114°52'E.

14 Feb 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese auxiliary gunboat Hirotama Maru (1911 GRT) at the south entrance to Makassar Strait in position 04°11'S, 117°45'E. Trout surfaces to sink the ship with gunfire but 7 of her crew were wounded by gunfire from the Japanese ship. Lt.Cdr. Ramage then decided to finish off the Japanese ship with a torpedo.

25 Feb 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) ended her 7th war patrol at Fremantle.

22 Mar 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) left Fremantle for her 8th war patrol. She was ordered to lay mines in the Api Passage north of Borneo.

7 Apr 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) lays her mines off Sarawak, Borneo.

3 May 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) ended her 8th war patrol at Fremantle.

26 May 1943
The Japanese tanker Palembang Maru (5236 GRT) hits a mine north of Borneo in position 02°00'N, 109°15'E and is damaged. The mine is most likely laid by USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. L.P. Ramage) on 7 April 1943.

27 May 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. Albert Hobbs Clark) left Fremantle for her 9th war patrol, and was ordered to land men and supplies on Mindanao.

12 Jun 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) lands men and supplies on Mindanao, Philippines.

15 Jun 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese tanker Sanraku Maru (3000 GRT) off Sibitu in the Celebes Sea in position 05°09'N, 119°38'E.

2 Jul 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Isuzu Maru (2866 GRT) off the north coast of Marinduque Island, Philippines in position 13°36'N, 121°49'E.

9 Jul 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. Albert Hobbs Clark) picks up a party of five American officers off the south coast of Mindanao.

20 Jul 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) ended her 9th war patrol at Fremantle.

12 Aug 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) departed from Fremantle for her 10th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol the Surigao and San Bernardino straits in the Philippines.

25 Aug 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) sank a Japanese fishing vessel with gunfire in position 00°32'N, 125°18'E.

23 Sep 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Ryotoku Maru (3438 GRT) and the Japanese merchant Yamashiro Maru (3427 GRT) north-west of the Mariana Islands in position 20°45'N, 142°10'E.

4 Oct 1943
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) ended her 10th war patrol at Pearl Harbor. She was ordered to the Mare Island Navy Yard for an overhaul.

8 Feb 1944
With her overhaul completed USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) departed Pearl Harbor for her 11th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the East China Sea.

27 Feb 1944
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Aki Maru (11409 GRT) east of Formosa in position 22°40'N, 131°50'E.

29 Feb 1944
USS Trout (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Clark) torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Sakito Maru (7126 GRT) southeast of Okinawa in position 22°40'N, 131°50'E. Trout is later sunk, most likely by the Japanese destroyer Asashimo (offsite link) in position 22°40'N, 131°45'E.

Media links


U. S. Submarines in World War II
Kimmett, Larry and Regis, Margaret


Action in World War II

Japan’s December 7, 1941 surprise attack on Pearl Harbor occurred when the Trout was on patrol near Midway Island. That morning she witnessed the island’s bombardment by two enemy destroyers, although she was too distant to take action. However, her second war patrol took her to the Philippines with a cargo of ammunition.

In early February 1942, at Corregidor, she collected twenty tons of gold and silver to transport to Pearl Harbor. On her return through the Formosa Strait and near the Bonin Islands, the Trout got her first chance to avenge the December 7 attacks, as she sank a Japanese freighter and patrol vessel. Her next combat cruise took her off the Japanese coast.

During that cruise, she was credited with five sinkings, when in actuality she sank only two. This was due to her unreliable torpedoes, which had not yet been recognized as faulty. Along with many submarines, June of 1942 saw the vessel’s participation in the Battle of Midway, though she only was only able to help recover surviving Japanese soldiers days later.

Her fifth war patrol brought her to the waters off Truk, which lasted from August to October. This patrol saw her sink a small net tender, damage an aircraft carrier and receive damage of her own. The Trout’s sixth through tenth war patrols saw her operate out of Australian ports. These patrols saw her undertake an unsuccessful attack, though she did sink seven ships in the first nine months of 1943. In addition, she laid mines, landed and recovered agents in the Philippines, captured Japanese prisoners, and endured problems with her torpedoes, undoubtedly allowing several enemy vessels to escape.

She underwent overhaul at the Mare Island Navy Yard before her January 1944 return to Pearl Harbor. Early February saw her begin her eleventh war patrol. At the end of this patrol, she came upon a troopship convoy sailing to the Marianas. Of that convoy, she sank a transport and damaged another. However, she was never heard from again and presumably was sunk by Japanese destroyers during this attack, taking over 80 crew members with her.


1940, USS Trout, SS-202, 1st Day Of Commission, Gow Ng Cachet (KK462)

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Contents

Trout was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the trout, any of certain small, fresh-water fishes, highly esteemed by anglers for their gameness, their rich and finely flavored flesh and their handsome (usually mottled or speckled) coloration. Her keel was laid down on 28 August 1939 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine. She was launched on 21 May 1940 sponsored by Mrs. Walter B. Woodson, and commissioned on 15 November 1940 with Lieutenant Commander Frank Wesley "Mike" Fenno, Jr., as captain.


By NHHC

Vice Adm. Lawson P. “Red” Ramage, a Medal of Honor recipient for his actions July 31, 1944 as commanding officer of USS Parche (SS-384).
NHHC photo

Vice Adm. Lawson Paterson “Red” Ramage, the first C.O. of the Parche (SS-384) with the new Parche (SSN-683) conning tower, to his left, circa mid 1970’s. US Navy photo

From Naval History and Heritage Command, Communications and Outreach Division

Eight submariners have received the Medal of Honor, but only one earned his during combat on the surface rather than under the water.

On July 31, 1944, Cmdr. Lawson P. “Red” Ramage was commanding officer of the new Balao-class USS Parche (SS 384). A 1931 Naval Academy graduate and a 13-year veteran of the Navy, Ramage spent his early career on surface ships like destroyers and cruisers before attending the Submarine School and a two-year tour on USS S-29 (SS 134).

When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, Ramage was a staff member of Commander, Submarines, Pacific.

By early January 1942, Ramage was on his first war patrol as a navigator on USS Grenadier (SS 210). Six months later, as commanding officer of USS Trout (SS 202), the sub scored several hits on the Japanese light carrier Taiyo near Turk, the first damage inflicted by a U.S. sub on a Japanese carrier. By the end of his tour on Trout, Ramage’s crew had sunk three ships during four war patrols.

The national ensign blows in the breeze as the Parche (SS-384) is launched at Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, July 24, 1943.
US Navy photo

Ramage returned to the U.S. in 1943 to commission the newly-minted USS Parche as her commanding officer and was back in the Pacific by 1944.

Comdr. L. P. Ramage reads Parche’s (SS-384) commissioning orders on Nov. 20, 1943 at Portsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine.
U.S. Navy photo

Parche’s second war patrol had the submarine teamed with USS Steelhead (SS 280) and USS Hammerhead (SS-364) for a “wolf pack” patrol in the Luzon Strait in June-July 1944.

On the night of July 29, Parche sighted and began to stalk a convoy, along with Steelhead. Finding the convoy had changed direction, Ramage was determined to close the 30-40 mile gap using his faster surface speed (World War II subs had more narrow bows to allow them to go faster on the surface than underneath).

During the early morning hours of July 31, Ramage was on his bridge with the war patrol commander when he spotted three escorts.

“I decided there was no point trying to go in around these escorts, so I made a reverse spinner, turned outboard, and then came around and under all of them to get inside the escorts,” Ramage told John T. Mason Jr. for his book Pacific War Remembered: An Oral History Collection, published by the Naval Institute Press in 2013.

But when Parche changed direction, so did the convoy, 90 degrees to the southwest.

“Now we were dead ahead of them and closing fast, so fast that we hadn’t really had time to get a set up on them. One of the ships was right on us. Before we could do anything we were alongside and going by at 20 knots at about 100 yards.”

After firing off a couple of torpedoes on the fly, none hit. About this time, Ramage sighted what appeared to be two carriers off to the west. He ordered everyone below, including the war patrol commander, with the exception of one quartermaster manning the sub’s gun on the bridge.

Parche bore down and took aim on the lead ship, firing off four torpedoes. Every one hit.

Cmdr. Lawson P. “Red” Ramage, the first commanding officer of the Parche (SS-384) , remained on the sub’s bridge, along with a lone quartermaster, to fire on a 9-ship Japanese convoy off Formosa July 31, 1944. After 46 minutes, Parche had sunk four ships and damaged a fifth. Drawing by Lt. Cmdr. Fred Freemen, Courtesy of Theodore Roscoe, from his book “U.S. Submarine Operations of WW II”, published by USNI.

“We were firing now to kill with every shot, we weren’t firing spread. The ship turned out to be a tanker and she went straight on down.”

Parche swung around to get a bead on the second ship, also a tanker, while loading up the stern tubes expertly using the new rapid reloading technique devised by Parche’s torpedo officer, Lt. Frank Allcorn. Three torpedoes later, the tanker went down by the bow and there was a small fire, Ramage recalled.

Reloading on the fly, when Parche saw a transport dead ahead they fired two torpedoes and with hits on the bow and beam, she, too, went down.

With three ships down and one sinking, Ramage decided to go back and finish off the stricken tanker by reloading the aft torpedo tubes. Parche slid by the tanker just feet away.

“As we came under the stern of the tanker we cut as close as we could to keep out of the way of her depth gun. She couldn’t train it down on us she was well down by the bow and the gun was practically pointing straight into the air. We came tight under and cross her stern.”

Just as Parche sighted another good-sized ship, the tanker crew began shooting.

“The whole place was alight with gunfire. Everyone was shooting at every body and anything but we were invisible, I felt, except for the rooster tail we were laying out as our boat went through the convoy at 20 knots. When the tanker began shooting right down our wake it began to get a little bit hot. So we decided we had best put her out of her misery,” Ramage said.

As soon as Parche was within range at about 700 yards, she fired three torpedoes out of the stern, sinking the tanker. “Now we had two tankers and a transport down and a hit on the first ship,” Ramage said.

But the convoy wasn’t rolling over yet.

“Just as we got to this point we saw one of the escorts trying to ram us. We called for all the speed we could from the engine room and got across her bow. Then I turned right to come parallel with her and throw our stern out from under her way. We passed each other at about 50 or 100 feet, close enough so that we could have shouted at one another,” Ramage recalled.

Dodging and weaving among the ships, Ramage guided the submarine as the stunned Japanese crew tried to adjust their guns down into the water, often shooting up their own ships.

“There was another escort just beyond. I didn’t want to run into her, but she was closing fast. As soon as we cleared her we saw another big transport dead ahead. They reported from below that torpedoes had been loaded again, two forward. So I said, ‘Give this fellow (the transport) one right down the throat.’ ”

Parche fired off two torpedoes, hitting the ship with one. After getting a better bearing, a third torpedo was released. With two hits, the ship began to go down at the bow.

As Parche passed that ship, another came into view.

“We fired down the throat of this ship and got her down by the bow and then continued to the left to bring our stern to bear on her starboard side. Then we let one more go and that hit her directly amidships. It put her down,” Ramage said.

By dawn, Parche, which hadn’t taken a single hit, had sunk four ships and damaged one out of a 9-ship convoy. As the sky lightened, Ramage decided it was time for Parche to take a dive.

“We couldn’t see any other ships that were of consequence. There were mostly escorts now, just charging around and firing flares and shooting whatever small arms they had. … We needed to get some distance between them and where we were going to dive. As we maneuvered we saw them signaling to each other and trying to make a reading of what had happened. One of the quartermasters said, “I guess they have a lot of reports to fill out, too.”

Ramage’s rampage didn’t go unnoticed. After arriving at port, Ramage recalled Adm. Charles Lockwood coming down to greet them.

“He was very pleased and congratulated all of us. But in due time the patrol report was reviewed. Then the chief of staff usually wrote a little note to the commanding officer and summed the whole thing up – whether it was good, bad, or indifferent. Commodore Merrill Comstock wrote a note to me and said, “This was foolhardy, very dangerous and an undue risk. But he added, ‘I guess it’s okay as long as it came out all right. You got away with it but don’t do it again. That isn’t exactly what we expected you to do.’ “

If only Commodore Comstock knew the whole story. For you see, back in 1935, when Ramage requested submarine training, he failed the vision test due to a wrestling injury he received at the Naval Academy that weakened the vision in his right eye, according to a Submarine Force Museum blog posted Jan. 16, 2014.

Undaunted and determined, Ramage memorized the eye chart for one exam, and for another, when the examiner asked him to move the card to cover his left eye, in the darkness he didn’t notice Ramage was reading the chart again with his left eye. He passed the exam and was cleared for sub school.

Who would know years later – especially during the early morning hours of July 31, 1944 – that eye injury would give Ramage an advantage.

“I didn’t have to fool around with the focus knob on the periscope. Before I raised it, I turned the knob all the way to the stop (extreme focus). When the scope came up, I put my bad eye to the periscope and could see perfectly.”

On Jan. 12, 1945, Cmdr. Lawson P. “Red” Ramage received the Medal of Honor from President Franklin D. Roosevelt for “conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of this life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the USS Parche.”

Not to mention the hutzpah that got him driving a submarine between enemy surface ships while shooting them down at their own level. получить займ на карту


ISS Historical Timeline

Reagan directs NASA to build the ISS

January 25, 1984

President Ronald Reagan's State of the Union Address directs NASA to build an international space station within the next 10 years.

First ISS Segment Launches

November 20, 1998

The first segment of the ISS launches: a Russian proton rocket named Zarya ("sunrise").

First U.S.-built component launches

December 4, 1998

Unity, the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station launches—the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to assembly of the station.

First Crew to Reside on Station

November 2, 2000

Astronaut Bill Shepherd and cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev become the first crew to reside onboard the station, staying several months.

U.S. Lab Module Added

February 7, 2001

Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory module, becomes part of the station. Destiny continues to be the primary research laboratory for U.S. payloads.

U.S. Lab Module Recognized as Newest U.S. National Laboratory

Congress designates the U.S. portion of the ISS as the nation's newest national laboratory to maximize its use for other U.S. government agencies and for academic and private institutions.

European Lab Joins the ISS

February 7, 2008

The European Space Agency’s Columbus Laboratory becomes part of the station.

Japanese Lab Joins the ISS

March 11, 2008

The first Japanese Kibo laboratory module becomes part of the station.

ISS 10-Year Anniversary

November 2, 2010

The ISS celebrates its 10-year anniversary of continuous human occupation. Since Expedition 1 in the fall of 2000, 202 people had visited the station.

NASA Issues Cooperative Agreement

February 14, 2011

NASA issues a cooperative agreement notice for a management partner.

NASA Selects the ISS National Lab

July 13, 2011

NASA selects the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space to manage the ISS National Lab.

The First ISS National Lab Research Flight

Proteins can be grown as crystals in space with nearly perfect three-dimensional structures useful for the development of new drugs. The ISS National Lab's protein crystal growth (PCG) series of flights began in 2013, allowing researchers to utilize the unique environment of the ISS.


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