Siege of Xingyang, 204 BC

Siege of Xingyang, 204 BC

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Siege of Xingyang, 204 BC

The siege of Xingyang (204 BC) was a victory won by Xiang Yu during his struggle against Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty. Liu Bang was trapped in the besieged city, but managed to escape thus avoiding capture when the city fell.

Liu Bang soon recovered after his defeat at Pengcheng. His able subordinates were able to raise fresh armies, and Liu Bang moved to Xingyang (close to the Yellow River in Hunan). He built a fortified road connecting Xingyang to the Ao Granary on the Yellow River, and then used the city as his main base.

Although Liu Bang’s armies won victories elsewhere (notably at Jungzing), around Xingyang he soon ran into problems. Xiang Yu repeated cut the road between the city and the granary, and Liu Bang’s army was soon short of food.

In the summer of 204 Xiang Yu arrived in person and besieged Liu Bang in Xingyang. The defenders were clearly in a vulnerable position, for Liu Bang was forced to ask for peace, offering to split China, with Xiang Yu getting everywhere to the east of Xingyang and Liu Bang getting everywhere to the west.

Xiang Yu turned down this offer, and tightened the siege. After about a month one of Liu Bang’s generals, Ji Xin, suggested a plan that might allow him to escape. This involved two bluffs. First 2,000 women (probably dressed in armour) were sent out of the east gate. The Chu troops concentrated on this apparent threat. Ji Xin then rode out of the city in Liu Bang’s distinctive chariot, pretended to be the Han king and offered to surrender because food was running out. While Chu attention was focused to the east, Liu Bang and a handful of soldiers escaped out of the west gate. The defence of the city was entrusted to two of Liu Bang’s officers and the King of Wei.

Ji Xin paid for his role in the plot. He was taken before Xiang Yu, who asked where Liu Bang was. Ji Xin answered that he had already escaped, and as punishment was burnt to death.

The siege continued after Liu Bang’s escape. The other commanders killed the King of Wei, who had already changed sides once before, closing the Yellow River fords to Liu Bang. Liu Bang successfully pulled Xiang Yu away from the city in the mid-summer, taking up a position at Yuan, well to the south. A stand-off developed, but this ended when Xiang Yu learnt that another of his armies had been defeated well to the east at Hsia-p’ei. He moved east to deal with this threat, leaving Liu Bang free to defeat the Chu army camped at Chenggao, but despite these setbacks Xiang Yu’s men were still able to continue with the siege.

The siege was ended dramatically when Xiang Yu returned from the east. He was no longer willing to endure a long siege, and stormed the city. Zhou He, one of Liu Bang’s generals, was taken alive and offered great rewards if he changed sides. Zhou He refused to turn traitor, and was boiled alive.

Xiang Yu then besieged Liu Bang at Chenggao, forcing the Han leader to flee at the head of a small band of followers for the second time in the same year. Despite these successes Xiang Yu was unable to catch Liu Bang, and in the following year the two leaders agreed a truce (Treaty of the Hong Canal).

The .204 Ruger was designed in 2004 by Ruger and Hornady manufacturers. The cartridge is a centerfire rifle shell casing based off the .222 Remington Magnum design with a small rifle primer. The .204 Ruger is the second largest casing in its class behind the 5.6x50 Magnum. The ballistic performance based off the 32 V-Max, 40 , 45 grain are 4,225 ft/s (32 gr), 3,900 ft/s (40 gr), and 3,625 ft/s (45 gr).

The .204 Ruger is considered to be accurate on distances up to 270 yards. This makes it a good choice for varmint hunting such as prairie dogs, ground squirrels, and small game. The extended range makes the rifle popular among enthusiasts who wish to field test their shooting skills on varmints such as ground hogs.

The bolt action models are known to have a good track record for sport shooting due to being able to perform in all weather types such as rain, dust, or snow. Hornady boasts the fastest trajectory claims for any bullet of its class using a special powder that is not available to the public. The ballistic for the public version of the .204 Ruger are slower, but still in the upper echelon of ft/s making that continue to help make it a popular centerfire cartridge.

*Casing image above is an artist rendering and not a real photo of .204 Ruger Ballistics cartridge. While we have went to great lengths to make sure that it's as accurate as possible this rendering should not be used to generate specs for casings.

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Known Rounds

.204 Ruger-Nosler Ballistic Tip, .204 Ruger-Hornady SP, .204 Ruger-Remington AccuTip-V, .204 Ruger-Winchester Ballistic Silvertip, .204 Ruger-Winchester Hollow Point, .204 Ruger-Remington AccuTip, .204 Ruger-Federal Nosler Ballistic Tip, .204 Ruger-Hornady V-MAX, .204 Ruger-Hornady V-MAX, .204 Ruger-Federal Sierra BlitzKing,

Other Cartridges with Similar Widths (cartridges not bullets)

7mm Winchester Short Magnum (WSM), .30 Luger (7.65mm), .405 Winchester, .338 Winchester Magnum, 9mm Makarov (9x18mm), 8x57mm Mauser JS, .280 Remington, 7x57mm Mauser, .264 Winchester Magnum, 9mm Largo (9x23mm)*, .25 Auto (ACP), 7mm-08 Remington, 5mm Remington Rimfire Magnum, .257 Roberts, .357 SIG,

Other Cartridges with Similar Length

.17 Remington, .30 M1 Carbine, .300 Savage, .218 Bee, .500 Smith & Wesson Special Magnum, .44 Colt, .22 Hornet, .454 Casull, .45 Winchester Magnum, .44 Smith & Wesson Special, .25-20 Winchester, .45 Colt (often called .45 Long Colt), .17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire (HMR), .327 Federal Magnum, 6.8mm Remington SPC,

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Bullet Database

Image Cartridge Type FPS Energy Power Recoil Length
.17 Aguila rifle 1850 152 0.37 0.16 0.618
.17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire rifle 2483 246 0.45 0.19 1.06
.17 Mach 2 rifle 2078 163 0.35 0.17 0.714
.17 Remington rifle 4145 877 0.95 0.45 1.796
.204 Ruger rifle 3935 1272 1.46 0.6 1.84
.218 Bee rifle 2760 778 1.27 0.56 1.345
.22 Hornet rifle 2719 706 1.17 0.54 1.017
.22 Long rifle 898 52 0.26 0.14 0.613
.22 Long Rifle High Veloci rifle 1341 152 0.51 0.22 0.613
.22 LR rifle 1061 99 0.42 0.19 0.613
.22 Short rifle 896 52 0.26 0.13 0.421
.22 Winchester Magnum Rimf rifle 2000 342 0.54 0.34 1.055
.22-250 Remington rifle 3787 1624 1.93 0.9 1.912
.220 Swift rifle 3845 1674 1.96 0.9 2.205
.221 Remington Fireball rifle 3097 958 1.39 0.67 1.4
.222 Remington rifle 3167 1091 1.55 0.74 1.7
.222 Remington Magnum rifle 3525 1241 1.59 0.79 1.85
.223 Remington (5.56x45mm rifle 3148 1254 1.79 0.8 1.76
.223 Winchester Super Shor rifle 3766 1826 2.18 0.95 1.67
.224 Weatherby Magnum rifle 3650 1627 2.01 0.9 1.92
.225 Winchester rifle 3570 1556 1.96 0.9 1.927
.240 Weatherby Magnum rifle 3396 2432 3.23 1.46 2.5
.243 Winchester rifle 3179 1952 2.77 1.25 2.045
.243 Winchester Super Shor rifle 3198 2228 2.55 1.37 1.67
.25 Auto (ACP) handgun 814 68 0.74 0.17 0.615
.25 Winchester Super Short rifle 3155 2387 3.41 1.57 1.67
.25-06 Remington rifle 3123 2360 3.4 1.57 2.494
.25-20 Winchester rifle 1460 407 1.26 0.57 1.33
.25-35 Winchester rifle 2230 1292 2.61 1.18 2.043
.250 Savage rifle 2820 1765 2.82 1.27 1.912
.257 Roberts rifle 2790 2039 3.29 1.47 2.233
.257 Weatherby Magnum rifle 3408 2836 3.75 1.76 2.549
.260 Remington rifle 2856 2282 3.6 1.73 2.035
.264 Winchester Magnum rifle 3170 2766 3.93 1.91 2.5
.270 Weatherby Magnum rifle 3335 3333 4.5 2.05 2.549
.270 Winchester rifle 3536 3775 4.81 1.82 2.54
.270 Winchester Short Magn rifle 3238 3166 4.4 2 2.1
.280 Remington rifle 2896 2793 4.34 1.95 2.54
.284 Winchester rifle 2880 2762 4.32 1.93 2.17
.30 Luger (7.65mm) handgun 1210 296 2.2 0.52 0.85
.30 M1 Carbine rifle 1987 964 2.19 0.99 1.29
.30-06 Springfield rifle 2815 2920 4.67 2.19 2.494
.30-30 Winchester rifle 2373 1888 3.58 1.6 2.04
.30-378 Weatherby rifle 3382 4520 6.02 2.55 2.908
.300 Dakota rifle 3183 4206 5.95 2.6 2.55
.300 H&H Magnum rifle 2880 3314 5.18 2.34 2.85
.300 Remington Short Actio rifle 3034 3494 5.19 2.36 2.015
.300 Remington Ultra Magnu rifle 3066 3610 5.3 2.64 2.85
.300 Savage rifle 2518 2280 4.08 1.78 1.871
.300 Weatherby Magnum rifle 3229 4074 5.68 2.63 2.811
.300 Winchester Magnum rifle 3026 3517 5.23 2.39 2.62
.300 Winchester Short Magn rifle 3078 3576 5.23 2.36 2.1
.303 British rifle 2540 2406 4.27 1.98 2.222
.307 Winchester rifle 2510 2518 4.52 1.93 2.015
.308 Winchester (7.62mm NA rifle 2681 2617 4.4 1.95 2.015
.32 Auto (7.65mm Browning) handgun 957 136 1.28 0.29 0.68
.32 H&R Magnum handgun 998 197 1.78 0.42 1.075
.32 Short Colt handgun 745 99 1.2 0.27 0.65
.32 Smith & Wesson handgun 680 88 1.16 0.27 0.605
.32 Smith & Wesson Long handgun 758 124 1.48 0.35 0.92
.32 Winchester Special rifle 2250 1911 3.83 1.95 2.04
.32-20 Winchester rifle 1210 325 1.21 0.55 1.315
.325 Winchester Short Magn rifle 2213 2174 4.43 2.78 2.1
.327 Federal Magnum handgun 1427 452 2.86 0.67 1.2
.330 Dakota rifle 2925 4369 6.73 3.11 2.74
.338 Lapua Magnum rifle 2927 4831 7.43 3.33 2.774
.338 Winchester Magnum rifle 2819 3916 6.26 2.93 2.5
.340 Weatherby Magnum rifle 3033 4615 6.85 3.3 2.825
.35 Remington rifle 2120 1876 3.99 1.87 1.92
.35 Whelen rifle 2638 3538 6.04 2.64 2.494
.356 Winchester rifle 2460 2687 4.92 2.22 2.015
.357 Magnum handgun 1294 528 3.68 0.89 1.29
.357 SIG handgun 1379 515 3.36 0.76 0.865
.38 Special (.38 Smith & W handgun 876 235 2.42 0.53 1.155
.38-55 Winchester rifle 1320 986 3.37 1.51 2.085
.380 Auto (9mm Browning Sh handgun 980 194 1.78 0.41 0.68
.40 Smith & Wesson handgun 1074 423 3.54 0.74 0.85
.41 Remington Magnum handgun 1276 763 5.38 1.23 1.29
.44 Remington Magnum (Pist handgun 1317 897 6.14 1.45 1.285
.44 Smith & Wesson Special handgun 911 361 3.58 0.81 1.16
.44-40 Winchester rifle 1060 499 2.12 1.07 1.305
.45 Auto (.45 ACP) handgun 937 403 3.88 0.93 0.898
.45 GAP (Glock Automatic P handgun 959 414 3.9 0.92 0.76
.45-70 Government rifle 1680 2274 6.1 2.43 2.105
.470 Nitro Express rifle 2134 5055 10.67 4.84 3.25
10mm Auto handgun 1199 546 4.1 0.96 0.992
6.17mm (.243) Lazzeroni Sp rifle 3618 2470 3.08 1.37 2.05
6.53mm (.257) Lazzeroni Sc rifle 3750 3122 3.75 1.69 2.8
6.5mm Remington Magnum rifle 3118 2655 3.84 1.72 2.17
6.5x55mm Swedish Mauser rifle 2673 2078 3.5 1.72 2.165
6.5x57 Mauser rifle 2543 1881 3.33 1.62 2.232
6.8mm Remington SPC rifle 2600 1696 2.94 1.41 1.686
6mm Remington rifle 3156 2145 3.06 1.4 2.233
7-30 Waters rifle 2700 1942 3.24 1.46 2.04
7.62x39mm Russian rifle 2363 1587 3.02 1.29 1.528
7mm Remington Magnum rifle 3024 3106 4.63 2.06 2.5
7mm Remington Ultra Magnum rifle 3121 3330 4.81 2.13 2.85
7mm STW (Shooting Times We rifle 3239 3494 4.86 2.31 2.85
7mm Weatherby Magnum rifle 3199 3476 4.89 2.2 2.549
7mm Winchester Short Magnu rifle 3134 3314 4.76 2.06 2.1
7mm-08 Remington rifle 2827 2448 3.9 1.8 2.035
7x57mm Mauser rifle 2602 2255 3.9 1.68 2.235
7x64mm Brenneke rifle 2818 2662 4.26 1.85 2.51
8mm Remington Magnum rifle 2900 3734 5.8 2.77 2.85
8x57mm Mauser JS rifle 2466 2511 4.59 1.81 2.24
9mm Luger (9mm Parabellum) handgun 1138 357 2.82 0.65 0.754
Cartridge Image Type FPS Energy Power Recoil Length

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Siege of Xingyang, 204 BC - History

The victory over the many "Warring States" was not only due to the military superiority of the Qin armies but was acheived by many reforms of the state itself. The great legalist reformer of the dukedom of Qin was Lord Shang Yang 商君鞅 (d. 338 BC) who served as an advisor and as chancellor to Duke Xiao 秦孝公 (r. 362-338). Under his guidance, the capital was moved to Xianyang 咸陽 (modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), and the country was divided in counties (xian 縣), administered by magistrates (ling 令). Thus, the system of quasi-autonomous regional states was given up in favour of of a centralized bureaucracy. The officers, high and low, were punished and rewarded according to their performance. Shang Yang revised the tax system (taxation in kind instead of labour services) and made it possible to everyone to buy and to sell land. Peasantry and army became the centers of social politics. The more peasants worked the land, the richer the country and the stronger the army (in which the peasants had to serve). At least theoretically, a kind of group responsibility of the population was introduced. Last but not least, weights and measures, coins and the track width of the roads were standardized in the dukedom of Qin.
A series of mighty chancellors kept on the reforms that Shang Yang had induced to strenghten the state of Qin. The most important men of the last period before the unification are the former merchant Lü Buwei 呂不韋 (said to have been the real father of the First Emperor) who was chancellor of Qin for several years, the chancellor Li Si 李斯 and the legalist theoretician Han Fei 韓非.

The incentive of the Qin rulers may just have been to strenghten their own state, not to unify the whole territory of China under their own rule. Only the course of events made it possible to make Qin to a military superior state that was able to subdue the other regional states of the Zhou empire one by one. The first military step was the seizure of the two states of Shu 蜀 and Ba 巴 in the Sichuan Basin. From this base, it was possible to have a second flank to attack Chu 楚, the stongest enemy of Qin. In 230 BC, Qin destroyed Han 韓, in 228 Zhao 趙, in 225 Wei 魏, in 223 Chu, in 222 Yan 燕 and finally Qi 齊 in 221. The domain of the powerless Zhou kings already had fallen to Qin in 256.
The reasons for the triumph of Qin over the other states are manifold. The geographical location of the half-"barbarian" state of Qin between protecting mountains and the Yellow River gave it enough chances to build up its strengh unchallenged. The building of a canal made it possible to extend the irrigation system and to enhance the very important agricultural production. Esteeming manly virtues and disdaining the sophisticated culture of the eastern states created a state ready to engage in a ruthless war. The cultural backwardness, on the other side, made it necessary for the Qin rulers to employ foreign persons with administrative and military skills. With their help an administrative and penal law was created that was also codified and so contributed to the creation of an effective bureaucratic state.

On the sudden death of the First Emperor during his fifth inspection travel, the eunuch Zhao Gao 趙高, who was director of the livery office (zhongchefu ling 中車府令) and Counsellor-in-chief Li Si charged a plot against the crown prince Fusu 夫蘇. They forged the late emperor's testament in such a way that Prince Fusu was ordered to commit suicide, and his younger brother Huhai 胡亥 was installed as Second Emperor 秦二世皇 (r. 209-207). Already in his first year, rebellions of the old nobility and peasentry broke out. Zhao Gao arrested Li Si and let him suffer the five mutilating punishments. The Second Emperor killed himself of fear of the rebellions, and Zhao Gao installed a child as king of Qin, only to be stabbed to death by King Ziying 子嬰. The child king submitted to the adventurer Liu Bang 劉邦 who had occupied the Qin capital Xianyang. Yet the tyrant Xiang Yu 項羽 who saw himself as hegemonial king over the remnants of the Qin empire sacked Xianyang and executed King Ziying. In this way the powerful Qin dynasty came to an unfamous end.

Except personal reasons, the main factor for the downfall of the Qin dynasty was the overextension of peasant labour. Peasants had to deliver corvée labour (yi 役). The First Emperor had the palaces of the six old regional states (Qi, Yan, Chu, Zhao, Wei and Han) rebuilt in his own capital, had built the Epang Palace 阿房宮 and the imperial tomb at Lishan 驪山, constructed the Great Wall to protect China against the raids of the steppe tribes of the Xiongnu 匈奴, had built postal roads, and furthermore recruited peasants into his armies fighting against the Xiongnu and the tribes of the Southern Yue 南越. Instead of stablizing the empire's economical foundations after the long decades of conquest wars, the Qin government continued to exploit its economical and social sources to the utmost. A factor deeply aggravating this situation was the extremely harsh penal law issued by the Qin government. The penal law was in first place directed against the own state officials, and not so much against real criminals and evildoers. The fear of the central government that local officials might abuse their position or be lenient in their duties, caused the issuing of what is known as the "oppressive law" (hèfa [sic!] 荷法) of the Qin.
It was the rigidity of this law that led to the rebellions of several labour overseers in the year 209. Instead of awaiting punishment for being late or not delivering the right number of labourers, the overseers decided to rise up against the Qin dynasty. Still during the reign of the First Emperor, there had been several attempts at assassinating the tyrant (like an attempt by Zhang Liang 張良 and his retainers in 218), and someone had made a stone inscription saying that after the First Emperor's death the empire would disintegrate. The death of the First Emperor in 209 and the ensuing turbulences in the central goverment indeed seemed to have been a decisive factor. Zhao Gao dominated the court, eliminated his opponents, had executed officials remonstrating against him, controlled the emperor and had intensified the cruelty of the law and the amount of corvée labour the people had to deliver.
Chen Sheng 陳勝 and Wu Guang 吳廣 were heads of a group of 900 corvée labourers that camped in Daze 大澤鄉 (near modern Suxian 宿縣, province of Anhui) on the way to their destination. When a heavy rain set in, the group could not continue their march and risked being late, a crime to be punished by execution. Chen and Wu decided to raise in rebellion. In case of failure they would at least have a name in history. Chen Sheng was proclaimed king of Chu 楚 and was made highest commander, Wu Guang was his lieutenant. With the parole to do justice to late Prince Fusu and late general Xiang Yan 項燕 of Chu, they took to the arms. The rebel army took Jixian 蘄縣, Zhi 銍, Cuo 酇, Ku 苦, Zhe 柘 and Qiao 譙. When the army arrived at Chenxian 陳縣 (modern Huaiyang 淮陽, province of Henan) it disposed already of several ten thousand troops of all types of arms. Chen She convoked the old gentry of the region. Chen Sheng proclaimed himself king of "Enlarged Chu" (Zhang-Chu 張楚), Wu Guang was made supplementary king (jiawang 假王). In the meantime Ge Ying 葛嬰 had advanced towards the southeast. Ge Ying installed Xiang Qiang 襄彊 as king of Chu, but when heard that Chen Sheng was the king, he killed Xiang. For his failure, Ge was called to Chenxian and was executed. Wu Chen 武臣, Zhang Er 張耳 and Chen Yu 陳餘 advanced towards Anyang 安陽 and conquered Handan 邯鄲, the ancient capital of Zhao 趙. Wu Chen made himself king of Zhao. Zhou Wen 周文 supported Chu with his own troops and advanced to Xi 戲 but was defeated and died soon. Xiang Liang 項梁, a son of Xiang Yan, had made himself magistrate of Guiji 會稽 and adopted the title of Lord of Wuxin 武信君. Tian Dan 田儋 proclaimed himself king of Qi 齊 in the east. Liu Bang 劉邦, village head of Sishui 泗水, joined the rebellion (known as Duke of Pei 沛公 and eventual founder of the Han dynasty 漢, 206 BCE-220 CE), supported by some local sub-officials. Han Guang 韓廣 thereupon proclaimed himself king of Yan 燕 in the north, and Jiu 咎, Lord of Ningling 甯陵君, was allowed to become king of Wei 魏 (see Wei Jiu 魏咎), but Chen Sheng did not allow him to leave Chenxian. His competitor for the kingship of Wei was Zhou Shi 周市. Wu Chen, king of Zhao, was killed by Li Liang 李良. Zhang Er and Chen Yu thereupon made Xie 歇 king of Zhao (known as Zhao Xie 趙歇). Chen She had Wu Guang attacked Xingyang 滎陽, Deng Zong 鄧宗 conquered Jiujiang 九江 at the Huai River 淮河. Zhou Shi was to conquer the northeast, and Song Liu 宋留 was to attack Nanyang 南陽. The proclamation of the kingdom of Chu instigated a lot of people to join the rebellion. It was especially the southern regions where people killed the local officials of the Qin and built rebel armies. But also Qin officials joined the rebellion, like magistrate Wu Rui 吳芮. In the far south Ying Bu 英布 rose weapons, in Dongyang 東陽 in the southeast Chen Ying 陳嬰 rebelled. Qin Jia 秦嘉 and Zhu Jishi 朱雞石 controlled Tan 郯 in the east. An attempt by Zhou Wen to attack Xianyang failed. His army was annihilated by the Qin general Zhang Han 章邯. Tian Zang 田臧 killed Wu Guang because he was not able to conquer Yingyang and sent his head to Chen Sheng. But Tian Zang himself was defeated by the troops of Qin. Deng Yue 鄧說 lost Tan to the Qin. In the next months the Qin general Zhang Han was able to defeat more and more rebel troops. He finally attacked Chenxian where Chen Sheng had his residence. Chen Sheng fled to Xiachengfu 下城父 where he was killed by Zhuang Jia 莊賈. He was posthumously given the title of King Yin 隱王 and buried in Dang 碭 and was still venerated as a hero during the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE).
This event constituted a catastrophy for the rebels. Song Liu submitted to the Qin. Qin Jia thereupon made Jing Ju 景駒 king of Chu and asked Tian Dan, the king of Qi, for support against the troops of Qin, but Tian Dan refused. It was only Jing Bu who as able to repell the armies of Qin. Shao Pingjiao 召平矯 made Xiang Liang counsellor-in-chief (zhuguo 柱國) of Chu. Xiang Liang crossed the Yangtze River and was joined by Cheng Ying, Jing Bu, and then Liu Bang. Xiang Liang advanced to Xue 薛, killed King Jing Ju 景駒 and made Prince Xin 心, a grandson of the late King Huai of Chu 楚懷王 (r. 328-299), the new ruler of Chu, with the capital in Xutai 盱台 and later in Pengcheng 彭城. In order to honour King Huai, Prince Xin was also called King Huai. At that time, Qin conquered the kingdom of Qi. Tian Dan was killed. King Jiu of Wei met the same feat. Tian Dan was followed by Tian Jia 田假, and Wei Bao 魏豹 became king of Wei after the suicide of his brother Wei Jiu. Cheng 成 was made king of Han 韓. The army of Xiang Liang advanced to the north, liberated Dong'a 東阿, advanced to Dingtao 定陶 and killed the magistrate of Sanchuan 三川, Li You 李由. Tian Dan's son Tian Shi 田市 was thereupon named king of Qi. In the battle of Dingtao, Xiang Liang was defeated by the Qin general Zhang Han, and was killed. Xiang Yu 項羽, his nephew, was thereupon invested as Duke of Lu 魯. The first general of the rebel armies was Song Yi 宋義, Xiang Yu the second. Liu Bang was invested as Marquis of Wu'an 武安侯. King Huai of Chu promised that the first person conquering the capital of Qin, Xiangyang, would be made a king. In the meantime Zhang Han conquered Handan, the capital of Zhao. Xiang Yu thereupon killed Song Yi, crossed the Yellow River to the north and liberated Julu 鉅鹿, a city of Zhao besieged by Qin troops. This victory was the impetus for further military success. The Qin general Su Jiao 蘇角 was killed, general Wang Li 王離 captured, Zhang Han was repelled by Ying Bu and General Pu 蒲將軍 and withdrew to the west. Liu Bang conquered Kaifeng 開封. When Zhang Han sent for more troops, Zhao Gao, the factual ruler of Qin, refused. The most important general of Qin, Zhang Han, thereupon surrendered to Xiang Yu and was promised to be granted the title of king of Yong 雍.
Enraged, Zhao Gao forced the Second Emperor to kill himself and installed his nephew, the so-called Infant Ruler 秦王子嬰, as king of Qin. The central government of Qin clearly saw that the emperorship could not longer be sustained in the face of the resurgance of the old regional states Chu, Zhao, Wei and Qi. The Infant Ruler was unexpectedly not a helpless child but was able to have Zhao Gao killed and dispatched troops to occupy the Yao Pass 嶢關. Liu Bang circumvented the pass, defeated the last Qin troops at Lantian 藍田 and entered Xianyang in January 206. The king of Qin surrendered. Awaiting his allies, Liu Bang withdrew his troops to Bashang 灞上. He used the time to proclaim the end of the oppressive law of the Qin and thus attracted the support of the inhabitants of the region of Guanzhong 關中 around the capital. Xiang Yu, exhibiting quite an opposite kind of politics towards the Qin dynasty, massacred a whole army of 20,000 surrendering troops of the Qin at Xin'an 新安. He entered Xiangyang, killed the Infant King, plundered the capital and burnt it down. This was the sad end of the Qin dynasty.
In the next four years Xiang Yu and Liu Bang fought for dominance, a war that was ended in 202 with the suicide of Xiang Yu and Liu Bang's accession to the imperial throne as founder of the Han dynasty.
Marxists are happy to find here the first large-scale peasant uprising (nongmin qiyi 農民起義) in Chinese history. It is said to not have been a success because Chen Sheng became "estranged from the masses".

The kingdoms of the rebels against Qin
kingdom ruler(s)
Chu 楚 Chen She 陳涉 (i.e. Chen Sheng 陳勝), Chu Yinwang 楚隱王
opponent Xiang Qiang 襄彊
Jing Gou 景駒 , a relative to the old house of Chu, killed by Xiang Liang
Xin, King Huai of Chu 楚懷王心, called Yidi 義帝 "Righteous Emperor" , grandson of King Huai of Chu (r. 328-299), killed by Xiang Yu
In 206 Xiang Yu divides Chu in the kingdoms of West Chu 西楚, Hengshan 衡山, Linjiang 臨江 and Jiujiang 九江.
(Xiang 項) Xiang Liang 項梁, Lord Wuxin 武信君, ruler of Wu 吳 , killed in battle
Xiang Yu 項羽, Lord of Lu 魯 , nephew of Xiang Liang
Zhao 趙 Wu Chen 武臣 , killed by Li Liang 李良
Zhao Xie 趙歇 or Xie, King of Zhao 趙王歇 , descendant of the house of Zhao, later King of Dai 代
In 206 Xiang Yu divides Zhao into Zhao and Dai 代.
Qi 齊 Tian Dan 田儋 , killed in battle
Tian Jia 田假 , brother of Tian Jian 齊王建, the last ruler of Qi (r. 264-221)
opponent Tian Shi 田市, son of Tian Dan
In 206 Xiang Yu divides Qi into the kingdoms of Linzi 臨淄, Jibei 濟北 and Jiaodong 膠東.
(Han 漢) Liu Bang, Duke of Pei 沛公, Marquis Wu'an 武安侯
In 206 Xiang Yu divides the western area into the kingdoms of Han 漢, Yong 雍, Sai 塞 and Di 翟.
Yan 燕 Han Guang 韓廣 King of Yan , later of Liaodong 遼東 later killed by Zang Tu 臧荼
In 206 Xiang Yu divided this area into the kingdoms of Yan and Liaodong.
Wei 魏 Wei Jiu 魏咎 or Jiu, King of Wei 魏王咎 , suicide after defeat against Qin
Wei Bao 魏豹 , younger brother of Wei Jiu
In 206 Xiang Yu divides Wei into the kingdoms of Wei and Yin 殷.
Han 韓 Han Cheng 韓成 or Cheng, King of Han 韓王成 , later killed by Xiang Yu
In 206 Xiang Yu divided his territory into Han 韓 and Henan 河南.

Xiang Yu killed the Infant King of Qin, sacked the capital Xianyang and created new kingdoms under his domnation as so-called Hegemonial King of West-Chu (Xi-Chu Bawang 西楚霸王). The following table covers the years from 206 to 202 and gives an overview of the history of the "new regional states" that Xiang Yu had created. There are two persons of the same name: King Han Xin 韓王信 and the general Han Xin 韓信 (called Marquis Huaiyin 淮陰侯).
In order to avoid confusion, Han 韓 is written "Hann", and "Han" stands for Liu Bang's kingdom of Han 漢, from which the later Han dynasty is derived.

Kingdoms Created by Xiang Yu
Chu 楚 Xiang Yu kills Chu Huaiwang 楚懷王.
Xi-Chu 西楚 Hegemonial King Xiang Yu at Gaixia 垓下 defeated by Liu Bang Xiang Yu kills himself. For a short time in 202, general Han Xin 韓信 was King of Chu (degraded to the rank of Marquis Huaiyin 淮陰侯 in 201 rebelled and executed in 197).
Hengshan 衡山 King Wu Rui 吳芮 surrenders to Han installed as King of Changsha 長沙 in 202.
Xiang 項 (Linjiang 臨江) King Gong Ao 共敖, later his son Gong Xiang 共驩 (Wei 尉) in 204 dethroned by Han in 202.
Jiujiang 九江 King Ying Bu 英布 surrenders to Han in 204 reinstalled in 203.
Zhao 趙 (Changshan 常山) King Zhang Er 張耳 surrenders to Han in 206. Zhao Xie 趙歇 King of Zhao destroyed by Han in 204. In 203, Zhang Er 張耳 is reinstalled as king, followed by his son Zhang Ao 張敖 in 201.
Dai 代 King Zhao Xie 趙歇 destroyed by Han. Zhao Xie becomes King of Zhao in 206 Chen Yu 陳餘 King of Dai, destroyed by Han in 204.
Qi 齊 (Linzi 臨菑) King Tian Du 田都, later Tian Rong 田榮 Tian Jia 田假 is reinstalled by Xiang Yu, followed by his son Tian Guang 田廣 destroyed by Han in 203.
Jibei 濟北 King Tian An 田安 destroyed by Qi.
Jiaodong 膠東 King Tian Shi 田市 destroyed by Qi.
Han 漢 King Liu Bang 劉邦 (see Han Gaozu 漢高祖) after his victory over Xiang Yu Emperor of Han in 202.
Yong 雍 King Zhang Han 章邯 destroyed by Han in 205.
Sai 塞 King Sima Xin 司馬欣 surrenders to Han in 206.
Di 翟 King Dong Yi 董翳 surrenders to Han in 206.
Yan 燕 King Zang Tu 臧荼 rebels against Han, is destroyed in 203 his successor is Lu Wan 盧綰 in 202.
Liaodong 遼東 King Han Guang 韓廣 destroyed by Yan.
Wei 魏 (Xi-Wei 西魏) King Wei Bao 魏豹 surrenders to Han in 205 and is reinstalled as King of Wei destroyed by Han in 205.
Yin 殷 King Sima Ang 司馬卬 surrenders to Han in 205.
Hann 韓 King Han Cheng 韓成 later Zheng Chang 鄭昌. Liu Bang installs Han Xin 韓信 as king. Han Xin becomes King of Taiyuan 太原 in 201.
Henan 河南 King Shen Yang 申陽 surrenders to Han 206.

The names in green are the kingdoms surrendering to Han (Liu Bang), those in red weredestroyed by Han. The king of Qi conquered Jiaodong and Jibei, that of Yan conquered Liaodong. The decisive battle between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu was at Gaixia 垓下 (near modern Huaiyang 淮陽, Henan).


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Hasdrubal, (died c. 202 bc ), Carthaginian general customarily identified as the son of Gisco.

Hasdrubal and two brothers of Hannibal named Mago and Hasdrubal commanded three separate Carthaginian armies in Spain from 214 through 206 bc . Considerably reinforced from Africa, they routed the Roman armies and killed their commanders, Publius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Gnaeus, in 211.

Late in 210 bc , Publius Cornelius Scipio the younger (later called Scipio Africanus), the son of Publius Cornelius, arrived in Spain. He made many military gains, and Hasdrubal adopted a strategy of avoiding confrontations with him. In the early spring of 206 bc , Hasdrubal realized that he must stand and fight. The armies met at Ilipa (now called Alcalá del Río, north of Sevilla, Spain), where Hasdrubal was outgeneraled, defeated, and forced to retreat to the coast. He found his way to North Africa, where he gave Syphax, king of the Massaesyli, his daughter in marriage to formalize their military alliance. During the period from 205 to 203 Hasdrubal and Syphax fought Scipio on African soil. In 204 Hasdrubal and Syphax forced Scipio to end his siege of Utica, but in the spring of 203 Scipio burned their camps he then defeated both of them at the Battle of the Great Plains (in present-day Tunisia). Hasdrubal committed suicide before the Battle of Zama, following his conviction on charges of treason.

Applied to Queen Elizabeth II

Let's put this in perspective of a modern calendar with Queen Elizabeth's reign. We'll presume two calendars: the calendar year (roughly equivalent to the religious year) and the fiscal year (starting on July 1, roughly equivalent to the secular year).

  • By accession counting in the religious year (Jan - Dec):
    • 6 Feb 1952 - 31 Dec 1952 was her accession year.
    • 1 Jan 1953 - 31 Dec 1953 was her first year.
    • 5 Aug 2015 occurs during her 63rd year.
    • 6 Feb 1952 - 30 Jun 1952 was her accession year.
    • 1 Jul 1952 - 30 Jun 1953 was her first year.
    • 5 Aug 2015 occurs during her 64th year.
    • 6 Feb 1952 - 31 Dec 1952 was her first year.
    • 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1953 was her second year.
    • 5 Aug 2015 occurs during her 64th year.
    • 6 Feb 1952 - 30 Jun 1952 was her first year.
    • 1 Jul 1952 - 30 Jun 1953 was her second year.
    • 5 Aug 2015 occurs during her 65th year.

    Most Important Battles In Chinese History

    The Song forces of Emperor Zhao Bing (left) fell to Kublai Khan's (right) Mongols in the Battle of Yamen.

    China is the world's most populous nation with a current population of 1.381 billion. Beijing is its capital city. Historically, China was governed by hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Fierce battle emerged over the years between the monarchies. The last one was the Qing Dynasty which was replaced by the Republic of China.

    Battle of Zhuolu

    The Battle of Zhuolu was fought in 2500 BC. It pitted the tribes of Yanhuang led by the yellow emperor and Jiuli tribes led by Chiyuou and was fought in Zhuolu near the border of the present-day Hebei and Liaoning. The yellow emperor tribes merged with Yan emperor’s tribes and formed the Yanhuang tribe which rose to power on the plains of Guangzhou. They settled along the Yellow river towards the East China Sea where the Jiuli tribes were developed, and a conflict on the fertile plains of the Yellow River emerged between the tribes. The Jiuli first attacked the Yan emperor driving them towards the Yellow Emperor’s Lands which angered the yellow emperor, and he declared war against the Jiuli. The Yanhuang tribes eventually emerged victoriously and killed Chi You.The Jiuli were chased from central China while the Yellow Emperor built his capital in Zhuolu. The battle shaped the Chinese history as the Chinese refer themselves either as Yan or Huang descendants.

    Battle of Kunyang

    The battle of Kunyangt was fought in 23 AD in Kunyang. It was fought by the Lulin forces led by Liu Xing and Xin forces led by Wang Yi and Wang Xun. Wang Mang overthrew the Han Dynasty and took over China. However, he was incompetent, and a majority of his subjects all over the country rebelled against him. The leaders of the rebellion, Lulin, supported Liu Xuan to be the emperor of the new Han Dynasty. Wang Man decided to Suppress and crush the new Han regime before it gained momentum. The Xin forces approached Kunyang from the North in overwhelmingly large numbers. The Lulin forces fought until a backup of 10,000 soldiers arrived boosting their morale. One of Xing’s commanders, Wang Xun, was killed in a foolish daring attack with a small army contingent. The defeat forced Xin forces to retreat and finally collapse. When the news of the battle spread, people rose simultaneously and killed all the government officials and China was brought back to Han dynasty.

    Battle of Yangxia

    The Battle of Yangxia was fought in 1911 at Hankou and Hanyang between the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty and the proponents of the Wuchang Uprising. The war rose after the revolutionaries launched an uprising against the reigning dynasty and seized the cities o Hankou and Hanyang and made Li Yuanghong their leader. The Qing’s army had a numerical advantage as well as superior arms, and they crushed the revolutionaries after a heavy and bloody fighting which lasted 41 days. The Qing army managed to repossess the two cities. However, the battle gave time and boosted the morale of other rebels in all the other provinces to strengthen and defy the Qing dynasty. The fight ended when the commander of Qing forces, Gen. Yuan Shikai agreed to a ceasefire and agreed to peace talks leading to the end of the Qing Dynasty and the formation of a unity government for the Republic of China.

    Battle of Fei River

    The Fei River no longer exists but is believed to have flowed through Anhui. The battle was fought in 383 AD and was fought by the former Qin army and the Eastern Jin dynasty. The Former Qin was rose quickly under the leadership of the ambitious Fu Jian and in 379 AD it acquired the strategic Xiangyang city. By 381, he had conquered all of northern China and started invading the South. The Jin army attempted to recover Xiangyang to no avail and Fu Jian retaliated by sending a massive army to fight the Jin army. The former Qin army was made of many people who were untrained and was easily defeated by a smaller and more disciplined Jin army.

    Battle of Yamen

    The Battle of Yamen was fought in 1279 between the Song Dynasty and the Yuan dynasty of the Mongol Empire. The Song dynasty was led by the young emperor Zhao Shi for nine years after his father was captured. The Yuan dynasty had a small well-disciplined army and managed to defeat the Song dynasty and took over Yamen. The leader of Yuan dynasty, Kublai Khan, together with his descendants, led China for the next 97 years until the rise of the Ming dynasty.


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    Eratosthenes, in full Eratosthenes of Cyrene, (born c. 276 bce , Cyrene, Libya—died c. 194 bce , Alexandria, Egypt), Greek scientific writer, astronomer, and poet, who made the first measurement of the size of Earth for which any details are known.

    What were Eratosthenes’ major achievements?

    In addition to calculating Earth’s circumference, Eratosthenes created the Sieve of Eratosthenes (a procedure for finding prime numbers), tried to fix the dates of literary and political events since the siege of Troy, and is thought to have created the armillary sphere (an early astronomical device for representing the great circles of the heavens).

    What is Eratosthenes famous for?

    Eratosthenes measured Earth’s circumference mathematically using two surface points to make the calculation. He noted that the Sun’s rays fell vertically at noon in Syene (now Aswān), Egypt, at the summer solstice. In Alexandria, also in Egypt, at the same date and time, sunlight fell at an angle of about 7.2° from the vertical.

    How did Eratosthenes die?

    Eratosthenes died in his 80s in Alexandria, Egypt. He had become blind in his old age and could no longer work by 195 BCE. He reportedly fell into despair, and he is said to have committed suicide by voluntary starvation in 194 as a result.

    At Syene (now Aswān), some 800 km (500 miles) southeast of Alexandria in Egypt, the Sun’s rays fall vertically at noon at the summer solstice. Eratosthenes noted that at Alexandria, at the same date and time, sunlight fell at an angle of about 7.2° from the vertical. (Writing before the Greeks adopted the degree, a Babylonian unit of measure, he actually said “a fiftieth of a circle.”) He correctly assumed the Sun’s distance to be very great its rays therefore are practically parallel when they reach Earth. Given an estimate of the distance between the two cities, he was able to calculate the circumference of Earth, obtaining 250,000 stadia. Earlier estimates of the circumference of Earth had been made (for example, Aristotle says that “some mathematicians” had obtained a value of 400,000 stadia), but no details of their methods have survived. An account of Eratosthenes’ method is preserved in the Greek astronomer Cleomedes’ Meteora. The exact length of the units (stadia) he used is doubtful, and the accuracy of his result is therefore uncertain. His measurement of Earth’s circumference may have varied by 0.5 to 17 percent from the value accepted by modern astronomers, but it was certainly in the right range. He also measured the degree of obliquity of the ecliptic (in effect, the tilt of Earth’s axis) and wrote a treatise on the octaëteris, an eight-year lunar-solar cycle. He is credited with devising an algorithm for finding prime numbers called the sieve of Eratosthenes, in which one arranges the natural numbers in numerical order and strikes out one, every second number following two, every third number following three, and so on, which just leaves the prime numbers.

    Eratosthenes’ only surviving work is Catasterisms, a book about the constellations, which gives a description and story for each constellation, as well as a count of the number of stars contained in it, but the attribution of this work has been doubted by some scholars. His mathematical work is known principally from the writings of the Greek geometer Pappus of Alexandria, and his geographical work from the first two books of the Geography of the Greek geographer Strabo.

    After study in Alexandria and Athens, Eratosthenes settled in Alexandria about 255 bce and became director of the great library there. He tried to fix the dates of literary and political events since the siege of Troy. His writings included a poem inspired by astronomy, as well as works on the theatre and on ethics. Eratosthenes was afflicted by blindness in his old age, and he is said to have committed suicide by voluntary starvation.

    5 The Seven Captures Of Meng Huo

    In the third century AD, the Shu Han kingdom was dealing with an uprising that wouldn&rsquot be quelled. They had the power to beat the rebels in every battle, but they couldn&rsquot break their spirit. No matter how many times the kingdom tried to stomp the rebels out, the insurrection kept popping back up.

    Chancellor Zhuge Liang managed to capture the rebel leader, Meng Huo, and tried to persuade him that his followers had no chance. Meng Huo, however, would not believe it. The rebels, he told Zhuge Liang, would keep fighting until they won&mdasheven if he wasn&rsquot alive to see it.

    Instead of making a martyr out of him, Zhuge Liang let Meng Huo return to his army. They met on the field again, and Meng Huo was captured once more. When Meng Huo still refused to surrender, Zhuge Liang let him go&mdashand captured him again.

    Zhuge Liang had to capture and release Meng Huo seven times before Meng Huo finally realized that, no matter what he did, Zhuge Liang would defeat him. Finally realizing that it was hopeless, Meng Huo pledged allegiance to the throne. He ordered his followers to end the rebellion, and the insurrection ended forever.

    Polybius, Histories

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    The Siege of Aspis

    Siege of Aspis. (Clupea.)
    Aspis taken.
    M. Atilius Regulus remains in Africa , winter of B. C. 256-255.

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    tight gutters on some spreads

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